Cover image gallery

Click on an image to view a larger version, or on the links below to access articles and online extras.

Issue 3.5 Dragonfly, 3.4 Rosefinch with geolocator, 3.3 Aerial photograph of a forest, 3.2 African dwarf crocodiles, 3.1 Lichen community, 2.6 Common wildebeest, 2.5 Cane toad, 2.4 Passage graphical output, 2.3 Coral reef fishes, 2.2 Chitons, 2.1 A burrowing owl, 1.4 Profile of an Arctic fox, 1.3 Eastern hemlock, 1.2 Asian swamp buffalos, 1.1

Issue 8.3

This issue’s cover image shows an endangered green turtle (Chelonia mydas) recovering at the Turtle Clinic in Moorea Island, French Polynesia, after being injured by a spear gun. Turtles continue to be exposed to intense fishing effort in French Polynesia despite their protected status. This highlights the importance of regular monitoring, and proper assessment of conservation interventions in general, to derive reliable conclusions and information to managers and decision-makers. However, it is often challenging to reliably estimate the true effect of an intervention, owing to the diverse sources of spatial and temporal variability in the studied ecosystem.

Thiault et al. developed a new statistical approach – called Progressive-Change BACIPS (Before-After Control-Impact Paired-Series) – that extends and generalizes the scope of BACIPS analyses to time-dependent effects. After quantifying the statistical power and accuracy of the method with simulated datasets, they used marine and terrestrial case studies to illustrate and validate their approach. They found that the Progressive-Change BACIPS leads to better estimates of the effects of environmental impacts and the time-scales over which they operate.

Photo © Lauric Thiault

Read the article

Progressive-Change BACIPS: a flexible approach for environmental impact assessment
Lauric Thiault, Laëtitia Kernaléguen, Craig W. Osenberg and Joachim Claudet

Issue 8.2

This month’s cover image looks into the eye of a Verreaux's eagle (Aquila verreauxii). This species is found in mountainous regions of sub-Saharan Africa, where cliffs provide suitable nesting habitat. The eagle pictured here is equipped with a tracking device from the University of Amsterdam Bird Tracking System ( In South Africa concerns over the impacts of land use change and the development of wind farms have led to the implementation of tracking studies to better understand movement patterns of this majestic bird. Such studies have provided a wealth of high-resolution data and opportunities to explore sophisticated statistical methods for analysis of animal behaviour.

Leos-Barajas et al use accelerometer data from aerial (Verreaux’s eagle) and marine (blacktip reef shark) systems to demonstrate the use of hidden Markov models (HMMs) in providing quantitative measures of behaviour. HMMs are well suited to analysing animal accelerometer data because they account for serial autocorrelation in data and importantly they allow for inferences to be made about relative activity and behaviour when animals cannot be directly observed. In addition, HMMs provide data-driven estimates of the underlying distributions of the acceleration metrics, and the probability of switching between states, possibly as a function of covariates. The framework provided in the author’s paper “Analysis of animal accelerometer data using hidden Markov models” can be applied to a wide range of activity data, thereby providing exciting opportunities for understanding drivers of individual animal behaviour.

Photo © Andrew Jenkins

Read the article

Analysis of animal accelerometer data using hidden Markov models
Vianey Leos-Barajas, Theoni Photopoulou, Roland Langrock, Toby A. Patterson, Yuuki Y. Watanabe, Megan Murgatroyd and Yannis P. Papastamatiou

Issue 8.1

This cover image shows the Trupchun Valley, located in the Swiss National Park (SNP). Studying the development of nature in the absence of human interference has been a key objective since the SNP was established in 1914. Assessing dynamic vegetation changes has played an important role in the SNP’s research tradition, with the establishment of fi rst long-term observation plots by Josias Braun-Blanquet already in 1917. Comparing vegetation maps produced for nearly 100 years motivated our research on “How to predict plant functional types using imaging spectroscopy: Linking vegetation community traits, plant functional types and spectral response”. Despite these maps being elaborate, they either lack the spatial coverage or detail to allow us to understand how inter- and intraspecifi c plant trait variability and diversity patterns are infl uenced by topography, microclimate, herbivory and former land use. We were thus excited to fi nd strong relationships between plant life/growth forms, strategy types and indicators, and biochemical and structural vegetation traits which determine the spectral response in optical remote sensing instruments. Linking vegetation community’s functional signatures to spectral signatures allows us to accurately predict plant functional types using airborne imaging spectroscopy, substantially advancing our understanding of ecosystem processes in space and time.

Photo © Christian Schmid

Read the article

How to predict plant functional types using imaging spectroscopy: linking vegetation community traits, plant functional types and spectral response
Anna K. Schweiger, Martin Schütz, Anita C. Risch, Mathias Kneubühler, Rudolf Haller and Michael E. Schaepman

Issue 7.12

This month’s cover image shows a beautiful, brilliantly coloured fairy pitta (Pitta nympha) perched on a bamboo branch. The migratory fairy pitta breeds in Northeast Asia (Japan, South Korea, east China and Taiwan) from late April to September and winters mainly in Borneo from October to March. In Taiwan, the fairy pitta is also called the “eight colored bird” (as there are eight colors in its plumage: beige, yellow, green, brown, black, white, red on the vent area, and shiny blue on its wings) or the “little forest fairy” (as its body length is around 16–19 cm). The fairy pitta is rare and elusive, and is classifi ed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List, mainly due to the destruction of its primary habitats.

The majestic beauty of this fairy has provided the authors of ‘iNEXT: An R package for rarefaction and extrapolation of species diversity (Hill numbers)’ with a wealth of inspiration in formulating their methodology and relevant software to compute and plot the seamless sample-size- and sample-coverage-based rarefaction and extrapolation sampling curves for species diversity. Hsieh, Ma and Chao developed the iNEXT (iNterpolation and EXTrapolation) R package, which features an easy-to-use interface and effi ciently uses all data to not only make robust and detailed inferences about the sampled assemblages, but also to make objective comparisons of species diversity among multiple assemblages.

Photo © Jia Hong Chen

Read the article

iNEXT: an R package for rarefaction and extrapolation of species diversity (Hill numbers)
T. C. Hsieh, K. H. Ma and Anne Chao

Issue 7.11

The Oostvaardersplassen nature reserve, Netherlands, was established on polder land reclaimed from Lake IJsselmeer in 1968. Re-wilding was initiated at this site from 1983 with the introduction of Heck cattle (Bos taurus), Konik horses (Equus ferus caballus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus). Moreover, a multitude of ponds were created throughout the reserve between 1985 and 2000 for avian biodiversity. The site is managed with a policy of minimal intervention, i.e. the population size of freely roaming large herbivores is not controlled by culling, no supplementary feeding is given during winter and vegetation is not managed. The only intervention is aimed to avoid unnecessary suffering and consist in shooting animals identified as too weak to survive winter.

Most of the research examining the relationship between large herbivores and their impact on landscapes has used extant studies. An alternative approach is to estimate the impact of variations in herbivore populations through time using fossil dung fungal spores and pollen in sedimentary sequences. The ponds at Oostvaardersplassen provided the ideal settings for Baker et al. to develop further the dung fungal spore method and determine the relationship between spore abundance in sediments and herbivore biomass densities. Their results indicate that this method provides a robust quantitative measure of herbivore population size over time.

Photo © Henk Hupkes, Staatsbosbeheer

Read the article

Quantification of population sizes of large herbivores and their long-term functional role in ecosystems using dung fungal spores
Ambroise G. Baker, Perry Cornelissen, Shonil A. Bhagwat, Fransciscus W. M. Vera and Katherine J. Willis

Issue 7.10

This month’s cover image shows a Mountain-yellow legged frog (Rana muscosa), an endangered amphibian living in high elevation lakes and streams in California's Sierra Nevada mountains. This species has experienced drastic population declines across its native range largely due to the devastating effects of the amphibian chytrid fungus. This fungal pathogen infects the skin of amphibians as they reside in their aquatic habitats, eventually leading to amphibian morbidity and often death.

In the related article, Wilber et al. build a novel framework for linking individual-level measurements of host-pathogen interactions to population-level predictions of epizootic dynamics. They use this modeling framework to gain insight into the temperature-dependent dynamics of chytrid fungus-induced Mountain-yellow legged frog declines. It can also be used to understand the dynamics of other diseases of conservation concern such as white-nose syndrome in bats and facial tumour disease in Tasmanian devils.

Photo © Mark Wilber

Read the article

Integral Projection Models for host–parasite systems with an application to amphibian chytrid fungus
Mark Q. Wilber, Kate E. Langwig, Auston Marm Kilpatrick, Hamish I. McCallum and Cheryl J. Briggs

Issue 7.9

This month’s cover image shows a Hoary Bat or Hawaiian Hoary Bat (Lasiurus cinereus), a charismatic species due to its beautiful and unique fur colouration. It is an insectivorous and migratory bat, widely distributed across the Americas, that mainly inhabits forested areas. This species, like many other Mexican bats, is poorly known and is under threat due to the high rates of climate and land-use change in the country. The individual shown in the picture was captured in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico. It was measured, identified, recorded and immediately released on site as part of a project to ensemble a national bat acoustic library.

Zamora-Gutierrez et al. compiled the biggest library of bat sounds to identify bats from their echolocation calls in a megadiverse country. They have shown that it is possible to acoustically identify a high number of bat species for rapid biodiversity assessments. Acoustic surveys are increasingly used to monitor biodiversity and bats are ideal candidates for this as they constantly emit sound to explore their surroundings. It is vital to map ecological communities and track their changes through time in order to better understand and counteract the effects of the Anthropocene.

Photo © Veronica Zamora-Gutierrez

Read the article

Acoustic identification of Mexican bats based on taxonomic and ecological constraints on call design
Veronica Zamora-Gutierrez, Celia Lopez-Gonzalez, M. Cristina MacSwiney Gonzalez, Brock Fenton, Gareth Jones, Elisabeth K. V. Kalko, Sebastien J. Puechmaille, Vassilios Stathopoulos and Kate E. Jones

Issue 7.8

This month’s cover image shows two male sleepy lizards (Tiliqua rugosa) fighting. Fights in these long-lived lizards allow males to exclude others from their core home range and to follow their monogamous female partners throughout the breeding season. Since this species is the main host for some local ticks, it is also a suitable model system for studying the effects of host-behaviour on parasite transmission. Identifying the ecological factors that shape the structure of lizards’ social networks is important both for understanding their biology and for disease ecology. Separating the contributions of ecological constraints and social preference is a general challenge in social networks studies (i.e. did two animals meet because they had to share a resource or because they were attracted to each other?).

Spiegel et al. present a new method for analysing social networks and teasing apart these contributions. After validating the method with synthetic datasets obtained from computer simulations they use the lizards tracking dataset to explore these questions and demonstrate the utility of their method. They found that lizards show strong conspecific attraction, interacting more frequently and with more neighbours than expected by chance. Note, however, that these interactions are not necessarily friendly, as the two males in the picture remind us.

Photo © Dale Burzacott 2015

Read the article

Socially interacting or indifferent neighbours? Randomization of movement paths to tease apart social preference and spatial constraints
Orr Spiegel, Stephan T. Leu, Andrew Sih and C. Michael Bull

Issue 7.7

This month’s cover image shows a leaf of a grape vine (vitis vinifera) in the region of Las Alpujarras, Spain. The veins of the leaf form a complex tree which tapers out towards extremes. We can view this as an analogy with the process of inferring phylogenetic trees: the strong veins represent clear relationships, but as we approach the edges it is more difficult to make accurate connections.

The associated article is about a software tool for phylogenetic inference. The tool searches for the best phylogenetic tree to explain the evolutionary relationships among different species. It is a NP-hard problem, so finding the optimal tree among all the possible solutions is computationally expensive. MO-Phylogenetics includes a number of non-exact multi-objective techniques known as metaheuristics, which produce satisfactory solutions in a reasonable amount of time.

Photo © Antonio J. Nebro

Read the article

MO-Phylogenetics: a phylogenetic inference software tool with multi-objective evolutionary metaheuristics
Cristian Zambrano-Vega, Antonio J. Nebro and José F. Aldana-Montes

Issue 7.6

This issue’s cover image depicts the ‘Eye of the Sahara’, Mauritania. It illustrates the geologically unique nature of desert environments, and showcases openly-accessible satellite remote sensing (SRS) datasets for use in their monitoring. The image is a ‘false-colour composite’ image, containing data from both Landsat 8 (optical) and Sentinel 1a (C-band radar) satellites. The near- and shortwave-infrared Landsat 8 channels highlight vegetation (green) and desert (blue), while extreme topographical gradients are highlighted red from Sentinel 1a (red).

The Sahara contains unique but rapidly declining biodiversity and supports the livelihoods of 6% of world’s population. It is projected to be heavily impacted by climate change and is currently experiencing increasing anthropogenic pressures. SRS offers an opportunity to monitor ecosystems and biodiversity freely and repeatedly at a global scale. However, currently limited dialogue exists between the conservation and SRS communities, hindering the full potential for SRS in biodiversity monitoring. As part of the 5th Anniversary of Methods in Ecology and Evolution Special Feature, 'How do we want Satellite Remote Sensing to support biodiversity conservation globally?' identifies and processes multiple SRS-derived biodiversity-relevant variables across the Sahara. It then examines the relative applicability of these existing freely-available SRS-derived to inform the aims of existing biodiversity monitoring frameworks.

Photo © Harry Owen

Read the article

How do we want Satellite Remote Sensing to support biodiversity conservation globally?
Nathalie Pettorelli, Harry Jon Foord Owen and Clare Duncan

Issue 7.5

Few birds are as characteristic of recently burned forests in western North America as the Black-backed Woodpecker (Picoides arcticus). Within months after flames have died out, these woodpeckers colonize charred montane conifer forests feeding primarily on wood-boring beetles (eg. Cerambycidae). The beetles are also new arrivals, benefitting from the vast expanses of standing dead trees called snags. Post-fire forest management largely focuses on the removal versus retention of snags, which can cause conflict where forest management goals fail to align with species conservation. Not all snags are created equal, however, and patches with more woodpeckers could be retained over less populous ones. If only the secretive, smoky-colored woodpeckers were not so hard to find.

In this month’s issue, Tingley et al. develop a new predictive abundance model aimed toward imperfectly detected, territorial vertebrates. The Bayesian implementation of the model combines information on where species are likely to occur with their expected density, utilizing both occupancy-based surveys and home-range scaling models. Using the case study of the Black-backed Woodpecker, the Tingley et al. model accurately predicts spatial patterns of abundance in 4 recent fires, highlighting the use of the model for both conservation and management.

Photo © Tara Tanaka

Read the article

An integrated occupancy and space-use model to predict abundance of imperfectly detected, territorial vertebrates
Morgan W. Tingley, Robert L. Wilkerson, Christine A. Howell and Rodney B. Siegel

Issue 7.4

This month’s cover image shows a flapper skate (Dipturus intermedia) caught by anglers of the Scottish Sea Anglers Conservation Network (SSACN) in the Sound of Jura off the west coast of Scotland. During the study for the related article a total of 17 individuals were tagged with data storage tags (DSTs) between 2011 and 2012 in order to better understand their behaviour and define conservation measures for this endangered marine apex predator. In total only four individuals were recaptured in 2012 – one mature female and three males – and their depth profiles showed high individual variability. All individuals were rod-caught thanks to the expertise of SSACN’s members who target flapper skate in a catch and release fishing programme.

The analysis of individual behaviour is quickly developing thanks to computational advances and the development of electronic tags that are able to collect high quantities of high frequency data. Such data are necessary to obtain useful information on the detailed behaviour of individuals. These data help us to understand the processes that relate animals to their environment. Therefore it is essential to develop methods which can deal with the issues that these data intrinsically carry – such as long memory, non-normality, non-stationarity and nonlinearity.

Photo © Ian Burrett/SSACN

Read the article

Markov switching autoregressive models for interpreting vertical movement data with application to an endangered marine apex predator
Cecilia Pinto and Luigi Spezia

Issue 7.3

This month’s cover image shows a wild Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis), outfitted with a new GPS collar, in central Colorado. Following their extirpation in the 1970s, Colorado Parks and Wildlife reintroduced 218 wild-caught lynx, fit with Argos satellite/radio-telemetry collars, from 1999-2006. The pictured individual was trapped, collared, and immediately released in the spring of 2013 near Leadville, Colorado. He is the offspring of a lynx reintroduced to Colorado from Alaska in 2000 and was PIT-tagged as a kitten in 2005, making him approximately 8 years old in the photo.

Movement modeling is a rapidly growing field due to recent technological developments that have increased the temporal resolution and accuracy of animal location data. However, many historical data sets, such as the data associated with the lynx reintroduction, were not collected explicitly to model animal movement but may contain a wealth of location information. These data sets may have been collected using multiple methods, be temporally sparse, or contain large measurement error. In this issue, Buderman et al. develop a functional model for location data that are not amenable to analysis with other contemporary movement models. They demonstrate the utility of this model by analyzing the locations from two Canada lynx following their reintroduction to Colorado.

Photo © Steve Sunday
To see more of Steve Sunday's work, please visit his Website

Read the article

A functional model for characterizing long-distance movement behaviour
Frances E. Buderman, Mevin B. Hooten, Jacob S. Ivan and Tanya M. Shenk

Issue 7.2

Sagebrush steppe in eastern Idaho, USA. In this community, population dynamics of the dominant perennial grasses and shrubs respond to both climate variation and competition. A mechanistic understanding of these dynamics requires high resolution spatial and temporal data, which are available for this site thanks to decades of mapped censuses in permanent quadrats. However, traditional model selection routines are not ideal for analyzing these data because of the large number of potential covariates.

In Linking demography with drivers: climate and competition, Teller et al. develop the use of spline methods that statistically link growth and survival data to high resolution competition and climate data. The authors demonstrate that spline methods can accurately reflect the spatial effects of neighbors and the temporal effects of climate covariates like precipitation and temperature. In a simulation, the authors show that spline methods for climate covariates are superior to comparable machine learning methods given enough data.

Photo © Brittany J. Teller

Read the article

Linking demography with drivers: climate and competition (part of the Demography Beyond the Population Special Feature)
Brittany J. Teller, Peter B. Adler, Collin B. Edwards, Giles Hooker and Stephen P. Ellner

Issue 7.1

Daphnia zooplankton are a plentiful meal for fish predators in freshwater systems. They are not helpless, however, as they have evolved a number of mechanisms for predator avoidance, including the ability to increase rates of development and produce defensive morphologies in the presence of predators. Furthermore, these traits are sometimes passed onto their offspring. This month’s cover image depicts an adult Daphnia in the foreground, with a looming predator nearby. This Daphnia carries a number of eggs, and the growth rates and morphologies of these offspring may be influenced by the mother’s detection of the fish predator.

In the article associated with this image, the authors sought to develop a method for understanding the degree to which genome-wide epigenetic changes across generations are associated with changes in environmental variables (such as chemicals associated with predators). The resulting method, epiRADseq, which is a restriction enzyme DNA fragment associated next generation sequencing technique, allows for the detection of continuously variable methylation states throughout the genome. While applicable to many diverse questions related to epigenetic regulation, the method was demonstrated on a clonal Daphnia system. First generation Daphnia were introduced to fish predator cues and the second generation was raised in the absence of predator cues. Using epiRADseq, the authors discovered significant shifts in methylation state across several thousand genomic regions. Additionally, many of these loci were found to be in or nearby protein-coding genes. Due to a lack of genetic differences across clonal generations, differences in phenotype between first and second generation Daphnia in response to predation are likely directed by epigenetic modifications like those identified using this new method.

Photo © Drew Schield, University of Texas at Arlington
Original Images used to create the cover © Hajime Watanabe (Daphnia) and US Fish and Wildlife (Bluegill)

Read the article

EpiRADseq: scalable analysis of genomewide patterns of methylation using next-generation sequencing
Drew R. Schield, Matthew R. Walsh, Daren C. Card, Audra L. Andrew, Richard H. Adams and Todd A. Castoe

Issue 6.12

This month’s cover image shows the Terrain Wetness Index (TWI) computed from a very high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEM) acquired in the Swiss pre-Alps. TWI is one of the many underused environmental variables (along with the likes of morphometry indices and solar radiation) which can be obtained from DEMs and used as proxies to relevant ecological features.

In the associated paper, Leempoel et al. emphasize the usefulness of a large panel of DEM-derived variables to model micro-climatic conditions related to topography. Among them, it was found that wetness and ruggedness indices predicted measured ambient humidity and soil moisture, respectively. On the other hand, the authors progressively degraded the spatial resolution of DEMs and found a strong scale dependency in models’ strength. These results support the relevance of using multi-scale DEM variables to provide surrogates for important climatic variables, offering suitable alternatives to direct measurements at a local scale.

Photo © Kevin Leempoel, EPFL

Read the article

Very high-resolution digital elevation models: are multi-scale derived variables ecologically relevant?
Kevin Leempoel, Christian Parisod, Céline Geiser, Lucas Daprà, Pascal Vittoz and Stéphane Joost

Issue 6.11

This month’s cover image shows a fledgling kea (Nestor notabilis) calling to other members of its flock, which are foraging in the sub-alpine scrubland of New Zealand’s Southern Alps. The young parrot stands surrounded by snow tussock (Chionochloa spp.) which is the dominant vegetation there. The photo was shot early on Easter morning, in the Brewster glacier region of Mt. Aspiring National Park (c. 1,450m elevation).

The kea’s threatened status and extremely generalist diet make it unethical to restrict captive birds to one or two food types in order to determine their stable carbon and nitrogen isotope diet-to-tissue discrimination factors. In this month’s issue, Greer et al. develop a methodology to determine stable isotope discrimination factors without changing an animal’s diet, by instead mathematically controlling for possible confounding variables. The article also details a technique to directly compare the stable isotope ratios of different animal tissues and describes how these simple and cost-effective methods can be adapted for use across other animal classes.

Photo © Andy Pratt

Read the article

Simple ways to calculate stable isotope discrimination factors and convert between tissue types
Amanda L. Greer, Travis W. Horton and Ximena J. Nelson

Issue 6.10

Flashes in the deep ocean, a mosaic of Myctophids (lantern fish) bioluminescing in the dark. Lantern fish are common, taxonomically-diverse and widely distributed, small (<15 cm) mid-water fish. They are major components of the deep-water community, and aggregate into discrete layers. These layers are readily detected with echosounders, and are known as Deep Scattering Layers (DSLs). Echo’s from DSLs can be so intense that they have been mistaken in the past for the sea-bed – the so called false bottom. Lantern fish contribute substantially to the millions of tonnes of biomass in DSLs. They play an important role in the transport of carbon and nutrients between the surface and the deep ocean via diel vertical migration, the largest known migration of biomass on the planet.

The article related to this image by Proud et al. provide a much needed method to identify and characterise the ubiquitous layers, setting out well-defined metrics to enable inferences to be made concerning the spatial arrangement, distribution and heterogeneity of the biological community. The methodology will enable standardised and reproducible utilisation of a wealth of acoustic data that already exists, enabling us to gain better insight into ocean ecosystem function.

Photo © OAR/National Undersea Research Program (NURP)

Read the article

A method for identifying Sound Scattering Layers and extracting key characteristics
Roland Proud, Martin J. Cox, Simon Wotherspoon and Andrew S. Brierley

Issue 6.9

This month’s cover image shows a bumblebee (Bombus sp.) on a flower in Princeton, New Jersey (USA). Simulation studies have suggested that to achieve enough statistical power to detect community-wide declines and/or positive responses to agri-environment remedies, large-scale monitoring programmes for bees will require identifying at least hundreds of thousands of bees to species level. Morphology-based taxonomy is infeasible at this scale, and amplicon-based methods (‘metabarcoding’) are prone to false positives and negatives, as well as being unable to provide estimates of species biomass or counts.

In this issue, Tang et al. apply metagenomic methods to the assessment of bee biodiversity. It is now feasible to assemble hundreds of mitochondrial genomes from insect species, allowing the efficient creation of comprehensive reference databases. As a result, mass bee samples can be shotgun sequenced on high-throughput Illumina sequencers, and the resulting reads mapped to reference mitogenomes. Tang et al.’s pilot study shows that species detection is highly reliable, even for morphologically cryptic species. Moreover, read frequencies are correlated with estimated bee species biomasses, allowing estimates of species counts via a combination of occupancy across traps and estimated biomasses within traps. Mitogenomic methods for biodiversity assessment can be straightforwardly scaled up to hundreds of taxa or more per sample (e.g. ‘all pollinating insects + parasites’) by building up reference databases and increasing sequencing depth.

Photo © Xin Zhou

Read the article

High-throughput monitoring of wild bee diversity and abundance via mitogenomics
Min Tang, Chloe J. Hardman, Yinqiu Ji, Guanliang Meng, Shanlin Liu, Meihua Tan, Shenzhou Yang, Ellen D. Moss, Jiaxin Wang, Chenxue Yang, Catharine Bruce, Tim Nevard, Simon G. Potts, Xin Zhou and Douglas W. Yu

Issue 6.8

Rope-based canopy access is the key to unlocking the ecology of the upper reaches of the forest because it is relatively inexpensive and provides replicated sampling of canopy organisms, structures and spaces. It can also be dangerous, especially when methods and equipment not specified for tree climbing are used. To improve safety and aid climbers, the authors of ‘Review of rope-based access methods for forest canopy’, set out to create a user’s guide to 40 years of published literature on canopy access methods. They critique written descriptions of safe and unsafe climbing practices and list the climbing methods contained in every source.

The cover image shows two climbers ascending a 91 metre Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) in western Oregon, USA. The subject tree in the photograph is adjacent to the world’s tallest Douglas-fir which was climbed via ropes and measured to be 99.6 metres in height. Due to the scale in size, height and breadth of tree crowns, rope-based access is often required to accurately measure the dimensions of the tree and is likewise used for ecological studies on pollination; gas exchange; tree growth; fruit dispersal; diversity of epiphytes, invertebrates, and vertebrates; the atmosphere/biosphere interface; herbivory; ecosystem services; and climate change.

Photo © Paul Colangelo
To see more of Paul Colangelo's work, please visit his Website and follow him on Twitter and Facebook.

Read the article

Review of rope-based access methods for the forest canopy: safe and unsafe practices in published information sources and a summary of current methods
David L. Anderson, Will Koomjian, Brian French, Scott R. Altenhoff and James Luce

Issue 6.7

This month’s cover image is a photograph taken on Kakadu National Park’s floodplains in northern Australia. The image shows pandanus and water lilies, common floodplain vegetation and important cultural resources for Indigenous landowners in the park. Kakadu’s coastal floodplains are registered as a Ramsar site for their rare and unique wetlands, and importance in conserving biological diversity, but they are under threat from invasive plants such as invasive pasture grasses para grass and olive hymenachne.

In the associated article, Vanessa Adams et al. develop a spatially explicit, individual-based spread model that can be applied in data-poor situations to model future spread of invasive plants which can inform management strategies. It is applied to modelling spread of para grass on Kakadu’s floodplains and results are used to inform management recommendations. The model is flexible and can be easily adapted to other species and regions.

Photo ©Michael M Douglas (UWA / NERP Northern Australia Hub)

Read the article

Distribution, demography and dispersal model of spatial spread of invasive plant populations with limited data
Vanessa M. Adams, Aaron M. Petty, Michael M. Douglas, Yvonne M. Buckley, Keith B. Ferdinands, Tomoko Okazaki, Dongwook W. Ko and Samantha A. Setterfield

Issue 6.6

This month’s cover image is a photograph taken during a survey of seafloor habitats and associated groundfish species, conducted by NOAA Fisheries from an occupied submersible on a Southern California bank at a depth of 80 m (262 ft). The species shown are Rosy rockfish (Sebastes rosaceus), Starry rockfish (Sebastes constellatus), California Scorpionfish (Scorpaena guttata), Blackeye goby (Rhinogobiops nicholsii) under the jaw of the Rosy rockfish, and an unknown Sculpin (Cottidae) under the pelvic fins of the Rosy rockfish.

Multispecies surveys frequently record presence/absence or counts for multiple species at each survey location, and the distribution of abundant species is likely to be informative about the distribution of rare species whenever these species’ distributions are correlated due to similar habitat preferences. Distribution models for multiple species (“joint species distribution models”) can now be analyzed using spatial factor analysis (Thorson et al., 2015) to simultaneously estimate a low-rank approximation to the distribution of all species in a community. Spatial factor analysis builds upon recent advances in estimation for Gaussian random fields, and is shown to improve estimates of next year’s catches using a single year of count data for rockfishes in the California Current (such as those shown here).

Photo ©Mary Nishimoto (UCSB/NOAA Fisheries)

Read the article

Spatial factor analysis: a new tool for estimating joint species distributions and correlations in species range
James T. Thorson, Mark D. Scheuerell, Andrew O. Shelton, Kevin E. See, Hans J. Skaug and Kasper Kristensen

Issue 6.5

This cover image shows a female spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta) with her four month old cub and a young adult male at the communal den of one of the eight hyaena groups inhabiting the Ngorongoro Crater (Tanzania). Spotted hyenas are highly social carnivores living in female-dominated groups that are structured by strict hierarchies. Daily life in the group is characterized by frequent social interactions; hyaenas build up coalitions and friendships, quarrel and reconcile, and they compete for mates. Social challenges are known to elicit an endocrinological response and a well-established, non-invasive method to examine this response is to measure hormone metabolites from faeces or urine using enzyme immunoassays. The accuracy of an enzyme immunoassay may, however, vary due to fluctuations in laboratory conditions which may affect the comparability of measurements from different periods of time.

In the associated article, the authors develop a simple method to standardise hormone metabolite concentrations based on the re-assaying of a subset of samples. Their method is an alternative to the costly and time-consuming re-assaying of complete sample sets. The article provides comprehensive guidelines to identify changes in measurements accuracy and estimate the minimum number of samples required to obtain reliable results.

Photo ©Eve Davidian

Read the article

Determining hormone metabolite concentrations when enzyme immunoassay accuracy varies over time
Eve Davidian, Sarah Benhaiem, Alexandre Courtiol, Heribert Hofer, Oliver P. Höner and Martin Dehnhard

Issue 6.4

This month’s cover image shows a crested goshawk (Accipiter trivirgatus formosae), an endemic Taiwanese subspecies and one of over 600 bird species recorded in Taiwan. The crest of this species is short and is not visible in this image. Enjoying the diversity and beauty of these fascinating and spectacular birds and their natural habitats/environments has brought the authors many inspiring and enlightening thoughts on how to tackle some mathematical and statistical problems arising in ecology and evolution. These thoughts include (i) how to quantify the three major dimensions of biodiversity including taxonomic diversity, phylogenetic diversity (taking into account the evolutionary histories of species), and functional/ecosystem diversity (based on species traits), (ii) how to construct a seamless rarefaction and extrapolation sampling curve to standardize sample completeness in order to make fair diversity comparisons among multiple assemblages based on samples with different degrees of sample completeness, and (iii) how to infer the undetected biodiversity from incomplete samples and assess the sampling uncertainty of estimators. As part of the ‘New Opportunities at the Interface between Ecology and Statistics’ Special Feature, Chao and colleagues focus on the rarefaction and extrapolation of phylogenetic diversity, and theoretically derive for the first time an estimator of the undetected phylogenetic diversity in samples.

Photo ©Chun-Huo Chiu and Ching-Wen Cheng

Read the article

Rarefaction and extrapolation of phylogenetic diversity
Anne Chao, Chun-Huo Chiu, T. C. Hsieh, Thomas Davis, David A. Nipperess and Daniel P. Faith

Issue 6.3

This month's cover image shows a hoverfly(Chrysotoxum sp.) on a composite flowerhead in Norfolk (UK). In surveys of agricultural landscapes, hoverflies have been found to be more common and more species-rich in conventional cereal fields than in organic ones at the scale of an individual trap. However, hoverflies show a greater turnover across space within and between organic farms than they do in conventional farms. Consequently, species richness for organic farms may potentially overtake that of conventional ones at some scale, but assessing such coarse scale diversity patterns from fine scale samples is a methodological challenge.

In this issue, Azaele et al propose a new multi-scale spatial approach which is able to predict biodiversity patterns at large scales from the empirical data collected locally. The methodology can potentially predict the species richness within very large areas and can be used to assess particular agri-environmental schemes or the impact of human activities on biodiversity.

Photo ©Bill Kunin

Read the article

Towards a unified descriptive theory for spatial ecology: predicting biodiversity patterns across spatial scales
Sandro Azaele, Amos Maritan, Stephen J. Cornell, Samir Suweis, Jayanth R. Banavar, Doreen Gabriel and William E. Kunin

Issue 6.2

This cover image shows the ciliate protist Paramecium caudatum (about 0.25 mm long). Protist species like this are commonly found in aquatic habitats, and offer a unique study system to test ecological and evolutionary concepts. The protist was isolated from a natural pond, and subsequently used for microcosm experiments, which have a long tradition in order to test ecological and evolutionary concepts.

In the accompanying review paper “Big answers from small worlds: a user's guide for protist microcosms as a model system in ecology and evolution”, the authors describe a wide range of available techniques to use this and many other protists species to conduct microcosm experiments. The review paper gives detailed protocols of available techniques with a focus on modern, high-frequency and high-throughput measurements, and outlines how such microcosm experiments may be used to address a wide range of questions.

Photo ©Regula Illi and Florian Altermatt

Read the article

Big answers from small worlds: a user's guide for protist microcosms as a model system in ecology and evolution
Florian Altermatt, Emanuel A. Fronhofer, Aurélie Garnier, Andrea Giometto, Frederik Hammes, Jan Klecka, Delphine Legrand, Elvira Mächler, Thomas M. Massie, Frank Pennekamp, Marco Plebani, Mikael Pontarp, Nicolas Schtickzelle, Virginie Thuillier and Owen L. Petchey

Issue 6.1

Plastic pollution is a growing issue of international concern, particularly as awareness has increased about litter in the marine environment. This cover image shows the more than 170 plastic pieces that were found in the digestive system of a single deceased seabird encountered by the author. Plastic items this seabird ate included industrial pellets (‘nurdles’) that are just a few millimeters long, drink bottle lids, ties used for helium balloons, a plastic doll’s arm and numerous other plastic pieces, some more than 55 mm in length.We can necropsy deceased birds to find out what they have eaten as they forage in the open ocean. However, to understand the pervasiveness of plastics in the marine environment and the potential impacts to wildlife, non-destructive sampling is key.

In ‘A biochemical approach for identifying plastics exposure in live wildlife’ Hardesty and colleagues describe a new method to assess the ubiquity of plastics ingestion in seabirds. The simple swabbing technique, coupled with gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry, can be used to identify phthalate plasticizers that have been adsorbed into the preening oil of seabirds. The approach is quick, simple and can be used on live, wild-caught individuals without harm, serving as an effective tool to help manage declining, threatened or endangered species. Plastic items, such as those shown in this photo, end up in the marine environment and are mistakenly eaten by seabirds, turtles and other marine fauna. Ultimately, application of this method can broadly support state of the environment reporting to understand ocean health.

Photo ©Britta Denise Hardesty, CSIRO

Read the article

A biochemical approach for identifying plastics exposure in live wildlife
Britta D. Hardesty, Daniel Holdsworth, Andrew T. Revill and Chris Wilcox

Issue 5.12

An adult whooping crane (Grus americana) is pictured foraging in a cranberry reservoir in central Wisconsin. Cranes in the eastern migratory population, which was established through reintroduction beginning in 2001, successfully build nests and lay eggs. However, nest success has been poor. One hypothesis for poor nest success is harassment of nesting birds by black flies (Simulium spp). The authors of “A hierarchical nest survival model integrating incomplete temporally varying covariates” built a novel nest survival model to accommodate a situation in which fly populations were not sampled daily, and used the model to examine evidence for the black fly hypothesis. Preliminary results suggest that black flies do reduce nest success in nesting whooping cranes.

Photo ©Ted Thousand

Read the article

A hierarchical nest survival model integrating incomplete temporally varying covariates
Sarah J. Converse, J. Andrew Royle, Peter H. Adler, Richard P. Urbanek and Jeb A. Barzen

Issue 5.11

This cover image shows a great hammerhead shark (Sphyrna mokarran) captured on a fishing line being brought towards a research vessel for satellite tagging by scientists. Great hammerheads are Endangered with a high risk of extinction due to over-fishing. The attached satellite tag will be used by researchers to study their movement patterns and behaviors to identify their critical habitats to enable effective conservation planning. The use of electronic tagging to study the behaviors and ecology of marine animals has increased dramatically over the past decade. As scientists continue to use these tools, it is inevitable that other researchers and the public at-large will encounter animals carrying such tags. If the animals appear to be burdened or injured by the tag or if the tag appears non-functional, these encounters have the potential to generate conflict among different wildlife stakeholders (e.g. wildlife tourists, divers, fishers, hunters) which could negatively affect research efforts and undermine conservation work. However, these encounters also present an unparalleled opportunity to learn about the fate of the tags, providing insights for improving animal welfare, tagging technology, practices, as well as gaining the trust and support of other wildlife stakeholders.

In "Considering the fate of electronic tags: interactions with stakeholders and user responsibility when encountering tagged aquatic animals", Hammerschlag and colleagues discuss the fate of electronic tags on aquatic animals as encountered by other researchers as well as different stakeholders and what steps scientists can take to limit potential conflict among stakeholder groups and instead foster scientific collaboration, stakeholder approval, increase tagging efficiency, and ultimately improve animal welfare, tagging technology and practice.

Photo ©Christine Shepard

Read the article

Considering the fate of electronic tags: interactions with stakeholders and user responsibility when encountering tagged aquatic animals
Neil Hammerschlag, Steven J. Cooke, Austin J. Gallagher and Brendan J. Godley

Issue 5.10

The cover image of this issue shows research diver Marine Guenzo using a diver-operated stereo-video system (stereo-DOV) to survey coral reef fish in Palau, Micronesia. Although SCUBA is commonly used to survey fish populations, the accompanying article highlights that the presence of bubbles produced by SCUBA can bias counts of reef fish. Using stereo-video techniques to survey the fish community inside and outside areas protected from fishing, the authors compared conventional SCUBA diving to a more advanced diving technique, the closed-circuit rebreather (CCR) which does not produce bubbles. The results show that especially in areas where reef fish are heavily targeted by fishing, SCUBA can underestimate the numbers of large fish, thereby overestimating the effectiveness of marine protected areas. Silent bubble-free diving is recommended to minimise the behaviour of reef fish towards divers.
Photo © Steve Lindfield

Read the article

Silent fish surveys: bubble-free diving highlights inaccuracies associated with SCUBA-based surveys in heavily fished areas
Steven J. Lindfield, Euan S. Harvey, Jennifer L. McIlwain and Andrew R. Halford

Issue 5.9

The cover image of this issue depicts a Cape gannet (Morus capensis) at its nest on Bird Island, Algoa Bay, South Africa. Cape gannets are colonially-breeding seabirds, foraging as top predators of commercially-important epipelagic fish resources. In “An automated approach towards measuring time-activity budgets in colonial seabirds”, the authors demonstrate an unobtrusive, simple, long-term method for remotely recording nest attendance of colonial seabirds using advancements in VHF transmitter technology. Time spent away from the nest (foraging trip duration) was shown to be a reliable proxy for foraging effort. These time-activity budget data can potentially be used to interpret the real-time state of local marine conditions or provide a mechanism for ecological hypothesis testing using the fine-scale data generated. This has applicability for several colonial animal species.
Photo © David B. Green

Read the article

An automated approach towards measuring time-activity budgets in colonial seabirds
Gavin M. Rishworth, Yann Tremblay, David B. Green and Pierre A. Pistorius

Issue 5.8

This issue's cover image shows a bull African elephant (Loxodonta africana), called B1177 'Obama', moving through Samburu National Reserve in Kenya. Positional data collected using GPS tracking is increasingly used to study the movement ecology of a wide variety of species and can also be used for applied conservation as in our elephant program in Kenya. Space-use estimators are often needed to model an individual's utilization of its environment based on sampled positional data. In the associated article we present a new space-use estimator called the Elliptical Time-Density (ETD) model that is ideally suited to frequently sampled GPS locations. Unlike other methods, this approach is based on empirically derived parameters that are biologically interpretable.
Photo credit: George Wittemyer

Read the article

Elliptical Time-Density model to estimate wildlife utilization distributions
Jake Wall, George Wittemyer, Valerie LeMay, Iain Douglas-Hamilton and Brian Klinkenberg

Issue 5.7

Identifying regions of high functional connectivity for multiple species of wildlife is a conservation priority. In “Landscape connectivity for wildlife: development and validation of multispecies linkage maps”, the authors present an approach to predict areas of relatively high multispecies functional connectivity that is accurate, cost-effective, and efficient. The cover image shows a current density map, produced with the software Circuitscape, in the Algonquin-to-Adirondack region of North America, with warm colours representing areas predicted to have relatively high functional connectivity. Current density is proportional to the probability of use during a random walk. The map was validated with empirical data from fishers and herptiles, showing that multiple species move through areas that were predicted to have high functional connectivity.

Read the article

Landscape connectivity for wildlife: development and validation of multispecies linkage maps
Erin L. Koen, Jeff Bowma, Carrie Sadowski and Aaron A. Walpole

Issue 5.6

Part of biodiversity assessment consists of the estimation and tracking of changes in species composition and abundance of animal communities. Such a task requires an important sampling over a broad-scale time that is difficult to reach with classical survey methods. Acoustic monitoring may offer an alternative to usual techniques by passively recording and automatically analysing the sound produced by vocal animals. In particular, several acoustic indices have been developed to assess temporal changes of animal communities. The cover image shows a singing Eurasian wren (Troglodytes troglodytes) whose song is often part of the dawn chorus of birds, a massive collective acoustic behaviour observed just before sunrise. The use of dissimilarity indices on three distinct temperate bird communities reveals that acoustics could not be considered as faithful estimators of community composition variations, but still indicate important dates in community changes. Acoustics might be considered a key aspect of animal diversity that requires further study.
Photo© Aurélien Audevard.

Read the article

Monitoring temporal change of bird communities with dissimilarity acoustic indices
Laurent Lellouch, Sandrine Pavoine, Frédéric Jiguet, Hervé Glotin and Jérôme Sueur

Issue 5.5

Rare and inconspicuous species are more likely to be overlooked, with important consequences in ecology and conservation. To control against non-detection, the species detectability needs to be estimated. However, traditional methods to estimate detectability are costly because they require repeat surveys. This motivated a comparison of the efficiency and reliability of traditional occupancy models and the novel time-to-detection models. The cover image shows a felwort (Swertia perennis), a very conspicuous plant species of wetlands. Impossible to miss? Except when occurring at low abundance. This finding confirms that controlling against non-detection is essential, even with conspicuous species. The accompanying article highlights that detectability estimates under a time-to-detection model, based on a single visit only, were almost identical to those under a traditional occupancy model requiring two surveys. In other words, survey costs could essentially be halved by using time-to-detection designs.

Read the article

Hide-and-seek in vegetation: time-to-detection is an efficient design for estimating detectability and occurrence
Christophe N. Bornand, Marc Kéry, Lena Bueche and Markus Fischer

Issue 5.4

UV-B radiation is an important component of climate, and its complex and diverse effects on the physiology, distribution and population dynamics of numerous organisms are being increasingly recognized. However, globally conformal UV-B data have not been readily available for macroecological analyses. The glUV data set provides spatial data on UV-B radiation, covering the entire globe and including both the terrestrial and marine environments. glUV makes meaningful bioclimatic UV-B variables as well as monthly mean UV-B data available for a wide range of potential applications to the scientific community.
The cover image shows a global map of annual mean UV-B irradiation which is available online as part of the glUV dataset:

Read the article

glUV: a global UV-B radiation data set for macroecological studies
Michael Beckmann, Tomáš Václavík, Ameur M. Manceur, Lenka Šprtová, Henrik von Wehrden, Erik Welk, Anna F. Cord

Issue 5.3

Vegetation structure and its degree of complexity is important for many species, thus a variety of methods and metrics to quantify it have been developed. However, metrics such as leaf area index and canopy cover hide much of the three-dimensional complexity. Terrestrial 3D laser scanners offer ecologists a way to capture the structural complexity, but so far, approaches have been biased towards forestry applications. In ‘Creating vegetation density profiles for a diverse range of ecological habitats using terrestrial laser scanning’, the authors develop a methodology for processing scan data to produce vegetation density profiles across a range of wooded habitats. As well as solving issues not normally encountered in forestry applications, the method is compared against visual methods from three independent observers. The cover image is a screen grab showing the pixel cloud created at one of the survey sites. Importantly, the new methodology is able to capture 3D parameters in a manner that is more detailed and less subjective than traditional approaches.

Read the article

Creating vegetation density profiles for a diverse range of ecological habitats using terrestrial laser scanning
Michael B. Ashcroft, John R. Gollan, Daniel Ramp

Issue 5.2

Besides the surging interest in social behaviour, the influence of conspecifics on movement behavior is still an area in which the development of well-established statistical methods lags behind empirical studies. In 'A Statistical Framework for Inferring the Influence of Conspecifics on Movement Behaviour', the authors developed a method for studying whether and how the presence of conspecifics potentially influences the movements of individuals. This image shows a juvenile eagle owl (Bubo bubo), the biological model used to illustrate the applicability of the framework. Unlike much of the earlier work on collective movement behaviour, this approach is not based on specific assumptions about the underlying mechanisms, but is purely statistical. The great advantage of this approach is its generality: it can be applied to almost any movement data on interacting entities, from organelles within cells to GPS tracking data on large animals.
Photo© Vincenzo Penteriani.

Read the article

A statistical framework for inferring the influence of conspecifics on movement behaviour
María del Mar Delgado, Vincenzo Penteriani, Juan Manuel Morales, Eliezer Gurarie, Otso Ovaskainen

Issue 5.1

Camera trapping has become an important tool for ecological study, especially when working with elusive species in remote areas. This issue’s cover image shows a series of photos of snow leopards collected by the authors with camera traps in the mountains of northern Pakistan in 2011 and 2012. Each row of images is a separate sequence, captured at a different site. The data from camera trapping – evidence of an organism in space and time – are a result of the ecological process of presence vs. absence and the observation process of detection vs. non-detection. The article associated with the image demonstrates how hierarchical analytical methods, in combination with time-to-event statistics, can yield valuable insights into how photographic evidence accumulates during camera trapping.
Photo © Norwegian University of Life Sciences/Snow Leopard Foundation Pakistan.

Read the article

Using time-to-event analysis to complement hierarchical methods when assessing determinants of photographic detectability during camera trapping
Richard Bischof, Shoaib Hameed, Hussain Ali, Muhammad Kabir, Muhammad Younas, Kursheed A. Shah, Jaffar U. Din, Muhammad A. Nawaz

Issue 4.12

The cover image shows a green turtle (Chelonia mydas), hovering over a reef, off the Kona coast of Hawaii, USA. Evolutionary adaptations have allowed large, air-breathing, macro-vertebrates to invade the marine environment where they have successfully navigated the oceans for 50-100 million years. These adaptations led to streamlined bodies and efficient thrust producing flippers which have permitted marine animals, such as turtles, to make transoceanic migrations between breeding and foraging grounds or as developing juveniles in oceanic gyres. It is therefore not surprising that the hydrodynamics of their body forms are sensitive to animal-borne attachments (e.g., satellite transmitters). The energetic cost of carrying transmitters and the effects to the animal’s behavior, ecology, and physiology, however, are rarely considered, let alone quantified.
In “Calculating the ecological impacts of animal-borne instruments on aquatic organisms” the authors used marine turtles as model aquatic organisms and conducted wind tunnel experiments to measure the fluid drag of various marine turtle body types with and without commercially available electronic tags. Then, using concepts of fluid dynamics, they derived a universal equation estimating drag impacts from instruments across marine taxa.
Photo © Michael Carey.

Read the article

Calculating the ecological impacts of animal-borne instruments on aquatic organisms
T. Todd Jones, Kyle S. Van Houtan, Brian L. Bostrom, Peter Ostafichuk, Jon Mikkelsen, Emre Tezcan, Michael Carey, Brittany Imlach, Jeffrey A. Seminoff

Issue 4.11

This cover image shows two tetrahedron-shaped tea bags, which were used as standardised and low-cost test-kits to measure the decomposition dynamics of plant litter. The polyethylene mesh bag is resistant to decomposition, but does not exclude fungi and microorganisms. The bags contain Rooibos tea (LHS) and Green tea (RHS). Rooibos tea is largely comprised of woody plant litter and Green tea is largely comprised of leaf litter.
In the accompanying study, “Tea Bag Index: a novel approach to collect uniform decomposition data across ecosystems”, these contrasting litter types were exposed to decomposition by placing them in soil. Using the litter weight-loss, the tea bag index (TBI) was calculated, which allows the comparison of microbial decomposition dynamics on a local, regional and global scale.
Photo © Bas van de Riet

Read the article

Tea Bag Index: a novel approach to collect uniform decomposition data across ecosystems
Joost A. Keuskamp, Bas J. J. Dingemans, Taru Lehtinen, Judith M. Sarneel, Mariet M. Hefting

Issue 4.10

The conspicuous plumage of male crimson-hooded manakins (Pipra aureola) exemplifies some of the complex visual signals used by animals for mating and competition. Quantitative measurement of animal color through spectrophotometry has become increasingly popular, but analysis and visualization of these data-heavy methodologies remains a challenge. In this issue, Maia et al. introduce “pavo”, an R package that implements a centralized workflow to combine spectral data and visual models through several powerful visualization and analytical tools. The software provides a flexible and modular toolkit, including physiologically-informed models that can represent colours in the perceptual space of animals with different spectral sensitivities.
Photo © Sandro Barata

Read the article

pavo: an R package for the analysis, visualization and organization of spectral data
Rafael Maia, Chad M. Eliason, Pierre-Paul Bitton, Stéphanie M. Doucet, Matthew D. Shawkey

Issue 4.9

As digital technology improves, applications of continuous mark-resighting telemetry methods are increasing. However, knowledge of how to analyze such continuous data is lacking, as most statistical survival methods have been developed for discrete situations. By conducting a simulation to test the adequacy of these models for use with continuous data, we open new avenues for survival analysis of multiple taxa ranging from Cetaceans and fish to the pictured conehead termite (Nasutitermes corniger).
Image © Andrew Barbour

Read the article

Apparent survival estimation from continuous mark–recapture/resighting data
Andrew B. Barbour, José M. Ponciano, Kai Lorenzen

Issue 4.8

This cover image is of Globigerinoides trilobus, a species of macroperforate planktonic foraminifera that originated around 22 million years ago. This live individual was photographed during the GLOW research cruise to the South West Indian Ocean in 2009 and is less than a millimetre in size. Microscopic protists like these occur in great numbers in marine sediments and, with genetic material increasingly available, the group has great potential for an integrated approach to studying macroevolutionary patterns over long timescales.
In the accompanying Special Feature paper “Inclusion of a near-complete fossil record reveals speciation-related molecular evolution”, the authors use stratigraphic, phylogenetic and ecological data from the fossil record of Cenozoic macroperforate planktonic foraminifera, to test if among-lineage rate heterogeneity is explained by ecological factors and by the numbers of speciation events according to fossil lineage, fossil morphospecies and molecular species concepts.
Image © Andy Purvis.

Read the article

Inclusion of a near-complete fossil record reveals speciation-related molecular evolution
Thomas H. G. Ezard, Gavin H. Thomas, Andy Purvis

Issue 4.7

Acoustic methods are particularly important for monitoring species which are hard to study visually, such as cryptic or nocturnal birds. Automatic recorders can greatly increase the efficiency of call monitoring, but their adoption is hampered by lack of direct comparison with existing manual field call counts. Call surveys are central to conservation of all five species of the threatened or near-threatened New Zealand kiwi. The accompanying article compares automatic and manual acoustic survey methods, applied to call counts of little spotted kiwi (Apteryx owenii). This cover image is of a male little spotted kiwi in its daytime burrow in the study area in Wellington, New Zealand. The study shows that automatic methods are less sensitive than manual methods, but offer an extremely efficient alternative for species monitoring. They incur different biases, and so can yield different ecological conclusions unless these are accounted for.
Image© Andrew Digby

Read the article

A practical comparison of manual and autonomous methods for acoustic monitoring
Andrew Digby, Michael Towsey, Ben D. Bell and Paul D. Teal

Issue 4.6

Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, shown in this image, form a vital link in the Southern Ocean food web between phytoplankton and many higher-order predators. Their swarming behaviour makes them amenable to observation with underwater acoustic techniques. However estimation of density from these observations is not straightforward because changes in detectability with increasing distance from the acoustic detector can mask changes in density with increasing depth. Conventional distance sampling techniques are designed to model changes in detectability with distance, but not changes in density. The nupoint R package implements a variant of distance sampling that uses a swarm's angle from vertical, in addition to its distance from the detector, to separate density and detectability, and to obtain estimates of swarm distribution that are uncontaminated by changes in detectability. Estimates of the vertical distribution of swarm density can be useful in examining, for example, habitat preference or avoidance behaviour.
Image credited to: Steve Nicol.

Read the article

nupoint: An R package for density estimation from point transects in the presence of nonuniform animal density
Martin J. Cox, David L. Borchers, Natalie Kelly

Issue 4.5

This cover image shows a female chacma baboon (Papio ursinus) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. During floods, animals often have to cross inundated areas to reach small islands with high-valued food items, such as fig fruits. While some animals enjoy the fresh water, most are stressed by the possibility of encountering crocodiles. To assess how wildlife is affected by such events, metabolites of glucocorticoids (stress hormones) and other hormones can be extracted and measured from faeces. Although a powerful and non-invasive method to answer questions regarding endocrinological processes in free-ranging animals, the long-term storage of hormone samples at remote field sites is of concern.
The article linked to the picture assesses variation in hormones extracted from baboon faeces and stored under different conditions for a period of one year. The results underscore the strengths and weaknesses of different storage methods that can be performed at remote field stations.
Image credited to: Urs Kalbitzer.

Read the article

Long-term storage effects in steroid metabolite extracts from baboon (Papio sp.) faeces – a comparison of three commonly applied storage methods
Urs Kalbitzer and Michael Heistermann

Issue 4.4

Whilst volunteer data collection programs provide an opportunity to address the challenge of studying biodiversity across large spatial scales, issues regarding the quality of the data collected in this manner must be addressed. Volunteer survey protocols are typically less standardised than their professional equivalents and in “Comparing diversity data collected using a protocol designed for volunteers with results from a professional alternative” Holt et al. consider the implications of this for marine fish diversity studies. The image of a SCUBA diver was taken at Hin Muang pinnacle in South Andaman Sea.
Photo ©

Read the article

Comparing diversity data collected using a protocol designed for volunteers with results from a professional alternative
Ben G. Holt, Rodolfo Rioja-Nieto, M. Aaron MacNeil, Jan Lupton and Carsten Rahbek

Issue 4.3

Long-term demographic studies that use individually identified animals offer invaluable views of ecological processes. Photo-id is a powerful tool for studying wild animals, particularly as there is no need to handle animals – a good image is all that is required to “capture” individuals for life. ExtractCompare is the latest version of a freely-available semi-automated photo-id system that allows standardized comparison of natural patterns. Crucially, the new software takes into account some of the complications that arise with data of this type which had been overlooked previously.
Although female grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) are distinctively and laterally asymmetrically patterned, they pose a challenging problem for automated photo-id because of the impossibility of controlling the camera distance and angle to the subject (seals swimming offshore, and only partly visible as pictured, or lying on the shore) and the wide range of body postures they display. This work uses an extensive photo-id database of an intensively studied breeding colony, North Rona, to consider the problems of individuals generating multiple encounter histories through the risk of false rejection of matches or being captured from a single side. Survival, abundance and preference can be estimated now using patterns from different body areas by measuring and allowing for the risk of false rejection.
The research has confirmed that apparent annual survival of female seals at North Rona is lower than expected, something that is reflected in the declining number of seal pups born there. Pup production at the island has fallen from over 2000 in the 1970s to around 500 at present, whereas other colonies have increased.
Image credited to: Paddy Pomeroy.

Read the article

Analysis of photo-id data allowing for missed matches and individuals identified from opposite sides
Lex Hiby, William D. Paterson, Paula Redman, John Watkins, Sean D. Twiss, and Patrick Pomeroy

Issue 4.2

The image shows the Yorkshire Dales National Park (YDNP), UK, above the village of Malham after brief, heavy snowfall. It was taken during an April transect survey of curlew (Numenius arquata) and other wader species.  Within large areas, such as the YDNP, variables at multiple spatial scales can influence the distribution of bird species. When modelling the distribution of a species, the identification of the important variables, at the correct spatial scales, is important in developing the most reliable models. Models can be complicated by the large number of landscape-scale variables, problems with spatial autocorrelation and the fact that the same variable may influence a species at more than one spatial scale.  In "Identifying appropriate spatial scales of predictors in species distribution models with the random forest algorithm" the authors investigated a novel computational method to identify appropriate variables and their spatial scales for predicting population distributions. Analyses of simulated species distributions demonstrated that the technique facilitated the evaluation of multiple spatial scales of multiple variables against each other. This approach was then applied to a real dataset on curlew collected during the field survey mentioned above.
Image by Ute Bradter.

Read the article

Identifying appropriate spatial scales of predictors in species distribution models with the random forest algorithm
by Ute Bradter, William E. Kunin, John D. Altringham, Tim J. Thom, Tim G. Benton

Issue 4.1

There is a growing number of high-quality food-web datasets that are augmented with estimates of body mass and/or numerical abundance. In "Cheddar - analysis and visualisation of ecological communities in R" the authors present a new R package that provides a wide range of food-web and community-level analyses and plots, focussed on such enhanced data. The package allows a large range of commonly applied analyses and visualisations to be produced with just a few lines of R code. A rapidly emerging area of research examines how food-web patterns vary across environmental, spatial or temporal gradients. One of the datasets included with Cheddar describes ten naturally occurring stream communities sampled across a wide pH range. A number of food-web properties vary across this gradient, with diversity, linkage density and complexity all increasing with pH. The graphs shown on this cover image are from three different food webs, arranged in circles of radius proportional to the number of nodes in the web and with red lines representing trophic links. The lower two communities (Dargall Lane, right, and Old Lodge, left) are acidic. The top web is an aggregation of the ten regional webs, including data from base-rich sites with complex, species-rich communities.
Image by Murray Thompson.

Read the article

Cheddar: analysis and visualisation of ecological communities in R
by Lawrence N. Hudson, Rob Emerson, Gareth B. Jenkins, Katrin Layer, Mark E. Ledger, Doris E. Pichler, Murray S. A. Thompson, Eoin J. O'Gorman, Guy Woodward and Daniel C. Reuman

Issue 3.6

Networks of species interactions reflect ecologically important processes occurring at a range of timescales. Plant-pollinator interactions, for example, can be understood at very short time-scales corresponding to physical contacts, intermediate timescales reflecting seasonal or yearly associations, or long timescales reflecting co-evolutionary relationships. Here, for example, is a stingless bee, Tetragonisca jaty, interacting with a flower in Costa Rica. Understanding the different timescales in a system is necessary for correct inference using network methods. In 'Temporal dynamics and network analysis', Blonder et al. synthesize recent developments in network theory that are important when studying systems that change over time.

Read the article

Temporal dynamics and network analysis
by Benjamin Blonder, Tina W. Wey, Anna Dornhaus, Richard James and Andrew Sih

Issue 3.5

An important tool of animal population biology is the ability to recognize and follow individual animals over space and time. One non-invasive way to do this is through the use of photographic mark-recapture, wherein unique markings are used to recognize individual animals. In “A computer-assisted system for photographic mark–recapture analysis”, the authors present a new software tool, Wild-ID, that employs the SIFT algorithm to semi-automate the process of matching new digital images to those in an existing image database. They apply this technique to a population of Masai giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) in and around Tarangire National Park in northern Tanzania. This image shows a pair of cropped giraffe images matched by Wild-ID. The red lines connect matching “SIFT features”, identified by white dots, in the two images. The green lines indicate where the features on the lower image “should” have been located based on the affine transform applied to the upper image.

Read the article

A computer-assisted system for photographic mark–recapture analysis
by Douglas T. Bolger, Thomas A. Morrison, Bennet Vance, Derek Lee and Hany Farid

Issue 3.4

Stable-isotope ratios measured in migrating animals have proven to be of great value in understanding migration. For example, when a dragonfly emerges from the water, the isotope signature in that water body is fixed in its wing tissues, which thus provide information about its geographic origin. In this study we compared the isotope value from dragonfly wings of known origin with spatially explicit isoscapes based on water isotopes in precipitation. The relationship was strong, confirming the value of the method to study dragonfly migration.

One of the species used in the analysis was Pachydiplax longipennis. This individual was photographed at Red Slough Wildlife Management Area, Oklahoma. Photo © Dennis Paulson.

Read the article

A dragonfly (δ2H) isoscape for North America: a new tool for determining natal origins of migratory aquatic emergent insects
by Keith Hobson et al.

Issue 3.3

Recently developed light-weighed tracking devices for positioning through light intensity pattern ('geolocation') have begun to greatly improve our knowledge of animal migration. However, the analysis of geolocator data is impeded by many factors potentially affecting light levels and thus, ultimately the determination of positions. Herein, weather and vegetation are major factors altering the light regime experienced by the animals. The picture shows a Common Rosefinch (Carpodactus erythrinus) featured with a 0.5 gram geolocator device.

In Geolocation by light: accuracy and precision affected by environmental factors Simeon Lisovski and colleagues demonstrated the effect of weather, topography and vegetation on the measurement of day/night length, time of solar midnight/noon and the resulting position estimates using light measurements from stationary geolocators at known places and from geolocators mounted on birds.

Photo © Germán Garcia - Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic.

Read the article

Geolocation by light: accuracy and precision affected by environmental factors
by Simeon Lisovski et al.

Issue 3.2

This very high-resolution image of a beech-dominated forest in central Germany was taken by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) at 250 meter above ground. In this photograph one can clearly recognize individual tree crowns and even smallest gaps. UAVs are increasingly used for ecological surveys because they provide extremely fine resolutions and thus allow the identification of previously undetected object details. Furthermore, UAVs can be considered as very cost-effective tools for the acquisition of data that can be used also very flexibly.

In Assessing biodiversity in forests using very high-resolution images and unmanned aerial vehicles Getzin, Wiegand and Schöning tested the hypothesis that gap-structural information on aerial images can be principally used for the ecological assessment of understorey plant diversity in forests. The authors demonstrate that spatially implicit information on gap shape metrics is indeed sufficient to reveal strong dependency between gap patterns as a filter for incoming light and plant biodiversity. The study highlights that understorey biodiversity can be actively controlled by the spatial quality, and not just quantity, of tree removal. Thus, even under the same quota of tree harvesting, the promotion of complex and irregularly shaped gaps may be beneficial to foster biodiversity in forests.

Photo © Getzin & Wiegand - Biodiversity Exploratories.

Read the article

Assessing biodiversity in forests using very high-resolution images and unmanned aerial vehicles
by Stephan Getzin, Kerstin Wiegand and Ingo Schöning

Issue 3.1

The African dwarf crocodile (Osteolaemus tetraspis) is endemic to closed-canopy forests of Central and West Africa and is the smallest of the world's true crocodiles. The species is difficult to study in the wild and therefore poorly known, but likely plays an important ecological role as a top aquatic predator in cool water forest systems. The dwarf crocodile is also a major food and economic resource to local people and, as a result, is threatened with overhunting for the bushmeat trade. The image depicts a collection of young dwarf crocodiles, possibly representing three cohorts, measured in a capture-recapture study in Loango National Park, Gabon.

The article linked to the image is On thinning of chains in MCMC by William Link and Mitchell Eaton. In the article, the authors caution against the routine practice of thinning chains in Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations. Many analysts, recognizing that MCMC precision decreases as the autocorrelation of the chains increases, routinely thin (sub-sample) their chains. Thinning reduces autocorrelation, but the associated gains in precision are more than offset by the reduction in chain length. Thinning of chains is therefore wasteful, though occasionally justified under circumstances discussed in the article.

The young dwarf crocodiles were photographed by Mitchell Eaton in 2004.

Read the article

On thinning of chains in MCMC
by William Link and Mitchell Eaton

Issue 2.6

Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are communities composed by mosses, lichens, liveworths fungi and bacteria that are prevalent in drylands worldwide. Lichen-dominated BSCs affect multiple ecosystem functions in those habitats where they are present, including carbon and nitrogen cycling, soil stabilization, and water infiltration and runoff.

In Randomization tests for quantifying species importance to ecosystem function, Nicholas Gotelli, Werner Ulrich and Fernando Maestre introduce randomization tests for evaluating the effect of individual species on ecosystem variables measured in multiple plots. This approach is tested using data on ecosystem functioning in lichen-dominated BSC assemblages from central Spain, and further validated using an independent microcosm experiment. The method proposed in this article provides a simple index and statistical test of species importance that can form the basis for additional hypothesis tests and experimental studies of species occurrence and ecosystem functioning.

This BSC-forming lichen community was photographed by Fernando T. Maestre in gypsum outcrops from Sax (SE Spain).

Read the article

Randomization tests for quantifying species importance to ecosystem function
by Nicholas J. Gotelli, Werner Ulrich and Fernando T. Maestre

Extra features

Impact – a FORTRAN program for gradient analysis.

Issue 2.5

Common or blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) can be found across the southern and eastern areas of Africa, grazing in areas of open savanna and grassland. This group were photographed in northern Tanzania by Thomas Morrison, Dartmouth College.

Over two and a half thousand such photographs of wildebeest were used to test a data-conditioning technique for overcoming misidentification error in capture-recapture studies, published in this issue of Methods in Ecology and Evolution.

Read the article

Estimating survival in photographic capture–recapture studies: overcoming misidentification error
by Thomas A. Morrison, Jun Yoshizaki, James D. Nichols and Douglas T. Bolger

Extra features

An illustration of "the challenging nature of individual wildebeest identification" undertaken during the course of this study.

Issue 2.4

Cane toads (Rhinella marina) are terrestrial amphibians native to Central and Southern America, and which were introduced to Australia in 1935 in an attempt to curb the spread of agricultural pests. Despite proving unsuccessful in this regard, cane toads have thrived and are now endemic in north-eastern Australia, and have had a noticable impact upon local biodiversity.

In Measuring amphibian immunocompetence: validation of the phytohemagglutinin skin-swelling assay in the cane toad, Rhinella marina, Brown, Shilton and Shine demonstrate that PHA injection offers a convenient assay to quantify immune function in frogs and toads, providing a convenient new tool with applications for assessing global amphibian declines.

This cane toad was photographed by conservation biologist Brian Gratwicke. Image licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0).

Read the article

Measuring amphibian immunocompetence: validation of the phytohemagglutinin skin-swelling assay in the cane toad, Rhinella marina
by Gregory P. Brown, Catherine M. Shilton and Richard Shine

Extra features


Issue 2.3

This striking cover image is an example of the graphical output of PASSaGE 2, an application providing a broad array of spatial statistical analyses not commonly found in other software packages or GIS software, documented in this edition of Methods in Ecology and Evolution. In this case, the image represents a colour-graded surface map of elevation data.

Read the article

PASSaGE: Pattern Analysis, Spatial Statistics and Geographic Exegesis. Version 2
by Michael S. Rosenberg and Corey Devin Anderson

Extra features

Read more about our free application papers

Issue 2.2

Coral reef fish of the Solomon IslandsA mixed-species group of coral reef fishes on Mangalonga Island, Solomon Islands. Coral reef fish communities are generally composed of a small number of subsets of coexisting species whose members often have a high degree of similarity in resource use. Given this similarity, the quantification of niche overlap in resource use is an important tool for investigating relative abundance distributions and species coexistence in coral reef fishes. Photo by Shane Geange.

Read the article

A unified analysis of niche overlap incorporating data of different types
by Shane Geange, Shirley Pledge, Kevin Burns and Jeffrey Shima

Extra features

Watch the demonstration of unified analysis with Shane Geange

Issue 2.1

Lepidochitona cinerea is a species of chiton: a form of marine mollsusc in the class Polyplacophora. Instead of solid shells, molluscs in this class posess eight interlocking aragonitic plates, allowing them to curl up and protect themselves when dislodged from the substrate. The polyplacophore fossil record stretches back for at leat 400 million years.

Gene sequencing of Lepidochitona cinerea has been used to provide a basis for the development of optimal gene selection protocols for future Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) multi-gene analyses, paving the way for the expansion of molecular-based reconstructions of deep molluscan phylogeny. The chitons' placement on a bivalve shell is, therefore, particularly appropriate. Photo credit: C. Kühne.

Read the article

Selecting ribosomal protein genes for invertebrate phylogenetic inferences: how many genes to resolve the Mollusca?
by Achim Meyer, Alexander Witek and Bernhard Lieb

Issue 1.4

Burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) are found across both North and South America, where they nest in abandoned burrows such as those vacated by prairie dogs. Unusually for owls, they are frequently active by day, and include fruit and seeds in their varied diet. Data gathered from point-coordinate capture-recapture studies of burrowing owls has been used to develop new methods of estimating species population size in songbird and reptile species.

This female burrowing owl was photographed in Joshua Tree, California, and is believed to be one of a colony of up to twenty adult and juvenile owls. Photo credit: Kevin Cole, licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0).

Read the article

Estimating population size using capture-recapture encounter histories created from point-coordinate locations of animals
By Jeffrey Manning and Caren Goldberg

Extra features

View more of Kevin Cole’s work.

Issue 1.3

Image thumbnail of the head profile of an Arctic foxThe arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) is one of the main predators of the arctic tundra ecosystem. It is an opportunistic, circumpolar species that samples all year round the terrestrial or marine food chains. It feeds preferentially on small rodents but also on food sources containing variable or higher amounts of lipids, such as eggs of birds nesting in the Arctic. When using stable isotope analysis and mixing models to reconstruct a diet, results can be strongly biased by variable lipid concentrations in food sources. We used the diet of the arctic fox as an example illustrating the effects of different lipid levels in food sources on the estimation of diet composition. The adult fox photographed here was observed on Bylot Island, Nunavut, in August 2008.

Read the article

Sensitivity of stable isotope mixing models to variation in isotopic ratios: evaluating consequences of lipid extraction by Arnaud Tarroux, Dorothée Ehrich, Nicolas Lecomte, Timothy D. Jardine, Joël Bêty and Dominique Berteaux

Extra features

Watch an interview with Arnaud Tarroux about this article.

Issue 1.2

Image thumbnail of a collection of forest shotsEastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) is a foundation tree species in over 6 million hectares of eastern North American forests. This species is now threatened in much of its range as an exotic insect, the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) spreads rapidly and killing hemlock trees within 5-10 years of infestation. Pre-emptive salvage logging in advance of the adelgid is also reducing hemlock cover, especially in northeastern North America. These panoramic photographs illustrate hemlock stands before and after girdling to simulate adelgid attack (top pair), before and after a logging operation (middle pair), and an undisturbed hemlock control plot (bottom pair) in the Harvard Forest Hemlock Removal experiment. Individual photographs were taken with a 24-mm Nikon manual lens mounted on a Nikon D-3 digital camera operated in FX mode. Each panorama was assembled from 4-7 individual photographs using Canon's Photostich software, version 3.1. Post-processing, including minor color correction and cropping, was done using IrfanView version 4.23. Photo credit and image processing: Aaron M. Ellison.

Read the article

Experimentally testing the role of foundation species in forests: the Harvard Forest Hemlock Removal Experiment by Aaron M. Ellison, Audrey A. Barker-Plotkin, David R. Foster and David A. Orwig

Extra features

Watch an interivew with Aaron Ellison about this article.

Issue 1.1

Image thumbnail of three Asian swamp buffalos in the dustAsian swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) introduced to Australia in the early 19th Century now populate much of the tropical north and cause severe environmental disturbances to savanna and wetland ecosystems. Despite a broad-scale cull of hundreds of thousands of free-ranging buffalo occurring in the 1980s and 1990s to eradicate brucellosis and tuberculosis, the population is recovering and continuing to threaten protected areas such as Kakadu National Park. A small wild harvest of several thousand buffalo occurs each year in Arnhem Land where mustering is aided by helicopters and on-ground vehicles. The buffalo pictured are housed in temporary holding pens and then shipped for live export. Photo credit: Jesse Northfield (used with permission).

Read the article

Spatially explicit spreadsheet modelling for optimising the efficiency of reducing invasive animal density by Clive R. McMahon, Barry W. Brook, Neil Collier and Corey J. A. Bradshaw

Extra features

Watch an interview with Corey Bradshaw about this article.

Virtual Issues

Open Access

The cover for this cross-journal virtual issue reuses Open Access Week promotional material, licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic

Read the virtual issue

BES Journals - Open Access

Extra features

Learn more about open access publishing with Methods in Ecology and Evolution

Forests and Global Change

The covers for the virtual issues compiled by Methods in Ecology and Evolution and the Journal of Applied Ecology are both derived from the same photograph of red and green autumnal leaves, chosen to reflect the issues' complementary qualities. Photo credit: Junichiro Aoyama, licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic. Adapted by Elizabeth Horne.

Read the virtual issues

Methods in Ecology and Evolution - Forests and Global Change
Journal of Applied Ecology - Forests and Global Change

Extra features

View the original image
View more of Junichiro Aoyama's work

Search the Site


Site Advert

ALPSP logo

ALPSP logo